In North Africa its spread was related to the empire-building process which took Islam to Morocco and Spain in the far west and to India in the east whereas in the rest of Africa its diffusion followed a different path. The African dimension goes back to ce when the first Islamic migration to Abyssinia, now called Ethiopia, took place, though its impact there at this early stage is not clear. Scholars, until recently, have not paid sufficient attention to the Islamic intellectual tradition and culture in sub-Saharan Africa which is generally treated as a periphery of the Islamic heartland in the Middle East. Moreover, studies about Islam in Africa are often marred by the view that gained currency during the colonial era, namely that African Islam represented a syncretic or diluted version of the faith, stripped of elements of its higher tradition. This view is difficult to understand given that Islam is indeed a religion of great synthesis which in the areas where it has spread has interacted with local cultures, enriching them and being enriched by them. The study of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa is now entering into a new and very interesting phase for instance, witness local and international efforts to help save old manuscripts relating to Tombouctou’s intellectual heritage as scholars begin to look at Africa’s literary tradition and contributions to aspects of Islamic law, mysticism, devotional matters, theology, and history in Arabic or local languages. Knowledge of the history of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa before the sixteenth century comes mainly from the works of Arab geographers and historians such as al-Bakr, al-Zuhri, Ibn Batuta, and others.
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Early Nigerian cultures The Nok culture Evidence of human occupation in Nigeria dates back thousands of years. The oldest fossil remains found by archaeologists in the southwestern area of Iwo Eleru, near Akure , have been dated to about bce. There are isolated collections of ancient tools and artifacts of different periods of the Stone Age , but the oldest recognizable evidence of an organized society belongs to the Nok culture c.
Named for the village of Nok, site of some of the finds, the ancient culture produced fine terra-cotta figurines, which were accidentally discovered by tin miners on the Jos Plateau in the s.
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Nigeria History Much has been said and written about Nigeria, her people and culture, economy and politics, that sheds light on the tremendous potential of this African Giant. However, little is known to the outside world about the many exciting tourist attractions available in Nigeria: Historic sites nestled amid rivers and rain forests, breathtaking mountain vistas, remote creek villages, miles of pristine beaches and exotic national wildlife reserves.
There are also museums, festivals, music and dance, a rich cultural melange right down to everyday traditional markets. These are just some of the spectacular sights and sensual delights awaiting the traveler to Nigeria. Nigeria has the largest population of any country in Africa about million , and the greatest diversity of cultures, ways of life, cities and terrain. With a total land area of , sq. Nigeria is the 14th largest country in Africa.
Its coastline, on the Gulf of Guinea, stretches km mi. Nigeria shares its international border of 4, km mi.
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According to Billy J. Dudley,  the British colonialists used direct rule for the indigenous ethnic groups on the Jos plateau since they were not under the Fulani emirates where indirect rule was used. It was the discovery of tin by the British that led to the influx of other ethnic groups such as the Hausa , Igbo , Yoruba , thus making Jos a cosmopolitan city.
According to the white paper of the commission of inquiry into the crisis, Ames, a British colonial administrator, said that the original name for Jos was Gwosh which was a village situated at the current site of the city; according to Ames, the Hausa wrongly pronounced Gwosh as Jos and it stuck.
It might be one of the toxic sensitizer and irritant on the skin, and initiator of lung diseases, so it is important to understand the characterization and toxic mechanism of MI in the body. In the pharmacokinetic study using rats, presented analysis method was useful for detecting the profile of MI in the plasma. We determined half-life, clearance and distribution of MI by WinNonlin software and these might be useful information for the study on the toxicokinetics in body.
In spite of the introduction of new agents such as L-LAAM and buprenorphine, methadone continues to be the drug of choice for the treatment of heroin addiction. Due to the wide variation in half-life among individuals reported values hours , there is a significant ovedose risk. Together with the requirement for effective monitoring of replacement therapy, it emphasizes the need for development of fast, precise and reliable analytical method for quantification of methadone in biological samples.
ISLAM: ISLAM IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
In the s, the Ibadan-Lagos expressway generated the greatest urban sprawl east and north of the city , followed by the Eleiyele expressway west of the city. Since then, Ibadan city has spread further into the neighbouring local government areas of Akinyele and Egbeda in particular. Religion[ edit ] Islam and Christianity are the dominant religions practiced in Ibadan with the overwhelming majority of the core Ibadan City Center inhabitants being Muslims.
Christianity is also spread all across this core city to the suburbs. Next to the Olubadan’s palace is the gigantic mosque where the Chief Imam holds his Friday jumu’ah service sermons.
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Three Sisters Hill – three hills that stand side by side. Akwa Ibom State Main Towns: Natural sand beaches at Ikot Abasi. Bauchi State Main Towns: Benue State Main Towns: Coal, Limestone, Petroleum, Tin, Columbite. Coffee, Rice milling, Seed crushing for oil. Enchanting scenic view of the Rivers Niger and Benue confluence. Borno State Main Towns: Tomatoes, Carrots, pepper Isorghum.
Cross River State Capital: Cross River is extremely rich in fish production – major commercial psecies of fish include shrimps, croakers, catfish, the bonga and shark. Agboin Falls and Kw Falls near Oban.
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Prior to joining Notore, Raymond led a project for Rolls Royce Civil Aviation on assessing supply chain resource adequacy and optimization for the organization. Before that, he worked with Lafarge Cement in Nigeria for close to a decade in various positions spanning production, sales and marketing, logistics and planning leading improvement measures and resource optimization. He spent a decade on the export desk of two major export-facilitating banks in Nigeria and was a member of the pioneer team that developed most of the export financing products and instruments that are generally used by most banks in Nigeria today.
Madu also pioneered Global Trade, Logistics and Supply Chain Education in Nigeria, with Multimix Academy becoming the leading firm delivering competency based education that has empowered managers across all sectors of the Nigerian economy.
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From Mona monkeys to sky-high walkway, a nature reserve that gives a thrilling experience by MUSA JIBRIL I was at the Lekki Conservation Centre, in the information hall, when a Mona monkey, with long ropy tail, came into the hall, hopped on a table, closed a laptop, and foraged for food under the table. It then walked around dramatically with an exaggerated right-of-way air, hopped from bench to bench, then slinked away. Excited adults had wiped out their mobile phones and took pictures of the simian spectacle.
It was not my first sight of a monkey frisking around leisurely. It was my first of seeing one with such an inalienable freedom. The visit was long in coming. Long ago, in the early s, I was a starry-eyed teenager in Junior Secondary School who won a category award in a national fine art competition jointly sponsored by the Nigerian Conservation Foundation NCF and Statoil. My prize, a picture book about African snakes, and my certificate, were sent from Lagos to me in Ilorin, the Kwara State capital.
Down the years, I did not forget the NCF acronym. When on Sunday, March 18, I finally walked through its gate, it was a rite of connecting to the past. This sun-drenched Sunday, people trooped into the reserve——Nigerians and expatriates of all races——and the guides had a very busy schedule. We waited for the clock to chime before we embarked on our tour. Eventually, at 12, we were ready to go, a motley group of Keep your food out of sight.
Lekki Conservation Centre
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